product_Atlas_Copco_-_QAS500_1-min

What you need to know about Automatic Voltage Regulator,AVR

 

 

An automatic voltage regulator (AVR) is a electronic device for automatically maintaining generator output terminal voltage at a set value under varying load and operating temperature. It controls output by sensing the voltage output at a power-generating coil and comparing it to a stable reference. The error signal is then used to adjust an average value of the field current.

Most cheap portable generators have fixed excitation. In such machines, when an alternator is loaded, its terminal voltage drops due to its internal impedance. This impedance is formed of leakage reactance, armature reactance and armature resistance. The Vout also depends on the power factor of the load. That’s why to maintain Vout within tighter limits, more expensive models use an AVR.

 

N:B All AVRs help regulating the output in a steady state operation, but are generally slow to respond to fast transient loads.

 

Q: What will happen if we removed the AVR from the generator circuit?

 

A: If you remove an AVR from Generator it means that we removed the heart of generation of the alternator, It will not receive voltage to excite to generate voltage. Automatic Voltage Regulator, acts as a capacitor storing power, any spikes in power is held and stored by the AVR circuit capacitors thus delivering the set voltage range which should have been done with pre-delivery inspection. Removing the AVR in the total generator circuit will give you fluctuations in output power. It is very important to get your engine speed to correct RPM before adjustment of AVR is done. If engine RPM is out of range. You stand a huge chance of blowing your AVR.
Removing the AVR in the total generating set circuit will give fluctuations in the output power.

 

Remark: It is very important to get your engine speed to correct RPM before adjustment of AVR is done. If engine RPM is out of range. You stand a huge chance of blowing your AVR.

 

Facility Condition Assessment

 

Aging facilities pose huge challenges for facilities managers responsible for dependable facility operation that meets their customers’ demands. Over time, facilities need to repair, upgrade or replace their equipment to meet various goals including operating up-time, service-level, quality, and production goals.

 

Facility leaders often lack the accurate picture of where their assets are in their useful operating life, making it difficult to develop appropriate asset management plans and capital budgets.

 

At RS Engineering,our Facility Condition Assessment can provide you with accurate, objective data about the health of your assets,sites and facilities so that you can target capital investments to meet the goals of your stakeholders and Clients. These goals could include 24/7 dependable operation, reduced risk, increased service capacity, or more growth.

 

RS Engineering’s facility Condition Assessments are customized to meet your facility’s specific needs.

Our assessments include:

Pre-assessment review – we’ll review your data about assets and facilities.

 

On-site assessment – we’ll observe activities, interview staff, complete inspections and review specifications and modifications.

 

Data analysis – we’ll analyze provided and observed data to create risk and performance recommendations.

 

Asset health index – this will combine asset condition and criticality ranking.

 

Executive summary – designed for executives and senior managers, this includes summary results and recommendations, immediate concerns, and cost analysis and timeline for corrective action.

 

Technical report – this report includes complete documentation of findings and assessment results.

 

At RS Engineering Global Limited,We RISE:

R-eliability
I-ntegrity
S-ynergy
E-xcellence,is our cultural value to delivering our services.

 

Procurement & supply, Installation & Maintenance, Logistics & General Contracts

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INDUSTRIAL MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

 

 

 

Companies know how their productivity partly depends on their industrial maintenance processes. Each company has very precise needs and therefore has to implement a specific type of maintenance.

 

Importance of Maintenance in Business

 

Many industries can confirm how maintenance costs represent a high share of operating costs. Figures obviously vary from one company to another but they can still sometimes represent up to 50% of the global production costs, without even taking into account planned or unplanned downtime, stock and tools management, purchasing… There are as many unforeseen events which can lead to additional costs that a company often struggles to estimate but that are nonetheless closely linked to the maintenance teams’ activity. It goes without saying that an organization’s profitability and productivity partly depend on the maintenance processes that have been implemented.

In order to help you make the right decision and deploy the perfect strategy, we want to discuss the different types of industrial maintenance, its application, when such maintenance is required and one of the many maintenance priority differentiation methods.

 

Types of Maintenance

 

The various types of maintenance that follow, however, can be applied in any combination within an organization.

 

Preventive Maintenance, PM ( Planned Preventive, Planned, Scheduled)-

 

Preventive maintenance is maintenance performed with the intent of avoiding failures, safety violations, unnecessary production costs and losses, and to conserve original materials of fabrication. The effectiveness of a preventive maintenance schedule depends on the RCM analysis which it was based on, and the ground rules used for cost efficacy.

 

Application~

 

Can be time-based or condition-based. As the terms imply, these methods define schedules either based on a set period of time (e.g. every 30 days) or on a specified condition (e.g. every 500 hours ran). Most PM plans include both methods.

 

When to apply-

 

Most critical assets should have a PM plan, because assets that break down more often and more catastrophically will benefit the most from regular, inexpensive maintenance activities. Lower frequency of breakdowns means less downtime and overtime costs, extended equipment lifetime, increased production efficiency, and increased maintenance team productivity .

 

Predictive Maintenance (PdM)-

 

Predictive maintenance
More recently, advances in sensing and computing technology have given rise to predictive maintenance . This maintenance strategy uses sensors to monitor key parameters within a machine or system, and uses this data in conjunction with analysed historical trends to continuously evaluate the system health and predict a breakdown before it happens. This strategy allows maintenance to be performed more efficiently, since more up-to-date data is obtained about how close the product is to failure.

 

Application

 

Predictive maintenance is really only condition-based, but with more precision. Instead of performing maintenance tasks after a certain number of hours ran, for example, thresholds can be vibration rates, temperature, or pressure. This often requires sophisticated sensors to monitor conditions, which can be continuous or periodic. Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) plays a big role in PdM.

 

When to apply-

 

PdM can be a very effective maintenance method in the right situation. A predictive maintenance plan is usually more relevant with more precise data on causes of breakdowns and inefficiency. This strategy can require expensive monitoring equipment, but its implementation can save money in the long run.

 

Corrective Maintenance (RM, or Breakdown, Run-to-Failure, Reactive)-

 

Corrective maintenance is a type of maintenance used for equipment after equipment break down or malfunction is often most expensive – not only can worn equipment damage other parts and cause multiple damage, but consequential repair and replacement costs and loss of revenues due to down time during overhaul can be significant. Rebuilding and resurfacing of equipment and infrastructure damaged by erosion and corrosion as part of corrective or preventive maintenance programmes involves conventional processes such as welding and metal flame spraying, as well as engineered solutions with thermoset polymeric materials.

 

Application-

 

Reactive maintenance can be immediate or deferred. For assets that significantly hinder operations, immediate action should be taken. However, breakdowns on less-critical equipment may sometimes be deferred until resources are available.

When to apply-

 

RM is typically most effective on non-critical assets. This is because a low cost of replacement/repair on these assets, as well as a low probability of failure don’t merit the costs of more frequent PM or of monitoring equipment required for PdM. Reactive maintenance is free to set up, but the higher frequency of breakdowns becomes expensive to apply for critical asset

One way of differentiating maintenance priority between assets is as follows: Asset Criticality Value = (probability of failure) x (consequences of failure) .Assets with a higher criticality value should receive more maintenance resources. Since we can assume that all companies have the goal of operational reliability and are faced with limited resources, reliability-centered maintenance and risk-based maintenance should both be generally-accepted practices.

In conclusion, most organizations use some combination of preventive, predictive, and reactive maintenance as their maintenance strategy. A maintenance plan should carefully consider the needs of the company and the criticality of each asset.

 

©RS Engineering Global Limited

Telecoms

The Challenges of Co-location Technology in Nigeria

 

The Challenges of Co-location Technology in  Nigeria

Spencer Itive | MCP, PMP, COREN |

 

The introduction of co-location technology as a way of mitigating at least the challenges of deploying telecoms services in Nigeria is yet to yield fully the expected desired results.

This is because Telecoms Operators instead of leveraging infrastructures sharing in its full potential, have continually undermined the benefits accrued from it.

This has left  deployment of GSM services huge challenges which this paper will  critically term  to examine.

 Nigerians embraced the Global System for mobile communications (GSM) when it was introduced far back 2001. This was because the citizens have been starved of mobile communication and often thought it was alien to them for years.

As they basked in this euphoria, the number of subscribers began to increase but without a commensurate significant increase in infrastructures rollout to withstand this growth level of subscribers.

Telecoms operators however, blamed the situation on government’s negligence in building infrastructures for network rollout. This, the operators complained has left them investing their hard earned profit in infrastructures rollout such as building and installing base stations and general operations of these sites.

However, the advent of colocation technology brought massive transformation in this sector as well as provided respite for telecoms operators. Here, telecoms services providers routinely enter into agreements with one another to share networks and other assets. These arrangements  facilitate interconnection between network; satisfy mandated asset sharing required by law or regulatory authority in order to promote competition; and help carriers maximize their use of assets, manage risk and build business cases with improved returns on investment.

 

COLOCATION TECHNOLOGY

 

Colocation technology is a system that allows telecoms operators to share some  type of physical space with other operator(s) , often competing operators. Colocation services provide significant technical and cost advantage in managing telecoms business. The bulk of colocation services entails collaborating to share either the active elements (the physical network) or the passive elements of their base station, which include the physical tower structure, security and diesel- powered generating sets, amongst others.

Colocation, which is a “cost reduction model”, is the provision of space for a customer’s telecommunications equipment on the service provider’s premises. Basically, there are two options of colocation technology for telecoms operators:

  • Third party service provider, provides a site and facilities, for instance, a tower for one or more operators to mount their equipment like radios and antennas.
  • Operator to operator agreements, where an operator offers one or more operators a space in his location / premises to share some infrastructure .

The cost of sharing facilities and colocating is reasonable compared to the cost of building one’s own infrastructure, hence a faster return on investment and an opportunity to focus more  on core business of the companies which is providing quality telecom services.

 

COLOCATION COMPANIES

The following are the list of co-location independent service providers in Nigeria:

  • Helios Towers Nigeria limited, HTN
  • IHS Towers Plc – Tower of Strength
  • Basnik Telecoms
  • Swap Technologies Limited
  • Capcom
  • American Towers Company, ATC
  • Netcom African Ltd.

 

CO-LOCATION CHALLENGES

  • High operational costs in the Nigeria Environment due to poor availability of power. Poor grid availability makes investments in transformers and grid connection non-economical.
  • Lack of good quality diesel.
  • Lack of timely delivery of diesel to site due to activities of miscreants or Area Boys on sites.
  • Lack of proper operational template for sites.
  • Security.
  • Lack of adequate implementation  of the regulation and legislation by the governing body.
  • Lack of patronage by some operators.
  • Multiple taxation fees and levies, prohibitive charges to procure right of way.
  • Activities of Host communities.
  • High CAPEX.
  • Vandalization.
  • Fear of sabotage from  perceived competitors.

 

SHARED INFRASTRUCTURES

  • Generating sets.
  • Transformers (PHCN)
  • Shelter space
  • Security personnels
  • Security/guard hut
  • Air conditioners (in case of indoor)
  • Rectifiers
  • Towers /mast structures
  • Rack space
  • Shelter/equipment plinth
  • D.C source
  • Transmission link  – cables, fibres , etc
  • Earthing protection system
  • Access road
  • Site space
  • Gantries
  • Network operating centre, NOC
  • Maintenance personnels
  • Telemetry
  • Power Interface Unit, PIU
  • Uninterrupted Power Supply, UPS
  • Inverter
  • Hybrid

 

BENEFITS OF COLOCATION

  • Telecoms operators can achieve up to 60 percent OPEX and CAPEX reduction as Co-location services are efficient.
  • Reduces proliferation of masts.
  • It enhances service quality.
  • Reduces noise and air pollution round sites/environment.
  • Reduces business risks.
  • It enhances healthy competition amongst telecoms operators leading to reduction in call tariffs.
  • Increased entry speed for new telecoms service providers.
  • It enhances customer satisfaction.
  • It improves the economy.

 

CONCLUSION

The opportunity has now come for telecoms service providers to stop the blame game and the unnecessary battle for superiority and supremacy , and embrace fully the co-location technology. These arrangements facilitate interconnection of networks, satisfy mandated asset sharing required by law or regulatory authority in order to promote healthy competition and improve service quality , and help them maximize their use of assets, manage risk and build business cases with improved returns on investment.